Process

Definition of Process

Definition Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

A process is a complete set of instructions for the orchestration of behaviours (i.e. activities carried out by specified entities), intended to achieve a particular outcome from a specified initial state, where complete means that all necessary activities are performed by specified performers (i.e. no activity is unallocated a performer).

Compare with procedure in which at least one activity is not assigned.

Whether an orchestration describes a process or a procedure is therefore determined by the rule, If all activities in an orchestration are assigned to performes, the orchestration is a process, otherwise it is a procedure.

Application of the process-procedure distinction allows processes to be audited for completeness.

Other Definitions

See the main Process article for commentary on the strengths and weaknesses of some of these alternative definitions.

The Best Management Practice portfolio glossary1Best Management Practice portfolio glossary, Version 1, October 2012 (may require acceptance of terms) pdf here includes the following alternative definitions2Unfortunately, the BMP common glossary referenced does not cite specific sources..

Generic: A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective.

ITIL: A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs. It may include any of the roles, responsibilities, tools and management controls required to reliably deliver the outputs. A process may define policies, standards, guidelines, activities and work instructions if they are needed.

PPM: A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs.

ISO has its own definition:

[a] set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs.3ISO 9000:2000, Quality management Systems – Fundamentals and Vocabulary. I cannot find an accessible version of this standard online, but, believing that access to standards is “of particular interest to the public” (I would have said, “in the public interest”), the government of India has made its Indian Standard identical to ISO 9000:2005 and placed it online pdf here. The definition of process is identical.

Scope

Process is a defined term of Enterprise Architecture. Process is a defined term of Business Analysis.

Discussion

Article Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

Alternative Definitions

Consider first some alternative definitions from reputable sources.

BMP

A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective.

The BMP generic definition is not easily distinguished from the BMP definition of Procedure, which is “A series of steps taken to achieve something.”

ITIL

A structured set of activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. A process takes one or more defined inputs and turns them into defined outputs. It may include any of the roles, responsibilities, tools and management controls required to reliably deliver the outputs. A process may define policies, standards, guidelines, activities and work instructions if they are needed.

The ITIL definition of process is sloppy: a process should not “define” policies etc., they should be developed in conjunction with the process design and referenced by the process specification. It is also not entirely consistent with ITIL’s own definition of Procedure, which is, “A document containing steps that specify how to achieve an activity. Procedures are defined as part of processes.” Procedures are not mentioned in the process definition.

ISO

The ISO definition of process correctly focuses on the transformation of states and what actually happens in the world; the specification for performing a process is called a Procedure in ISO terminology (procedures may or may not be documented).

ISO notes that process inputs are usually the outputs of other processes and acknowledges the existence of “special processes” whose outcomes “cannot be readily or economically verified”.

General Discussion

Note that all definitions (ITIL, PPM, & ISO) definitions recognise the idea of achieving an objective and that the nature of a process is transformational: a process turns inputs into outputs, and in this sense a process is just like a capability. ISO & PantologEA definitions allow for purely descriptive (i.e. non-intentional) activities to be described.

ISO & PantologEA definitions also explicitly recognise the role of the agents or performers in a process; for PantologEA, a process without assignment of roles & responsibilities (i.e. that describes only the sequence of activities or outcomes) is referred to as a procedure. Note also that whilst the ISO definition is focussed on what actually happens, the PantologEA definition addresses both what does happen and what is supposed to happen.

Given the significant variability in the meaning and use of the term process, care must be taken to avoid confusion.

Where there is a defined process for achieving a specified outcome there is a capability insofar as both address the transformation of inputs to outputs. Typically a capability is not realised until and unless appropriate resources and instructions on what to do with them are provided. Processes are therefore essential to the realisation of capabilities.

Procedure vs. Process

Section Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

Compare the following procedure and process for making an omelette.

A procedure outlines a sequence of steps and says what should be done without reference to who performs individual steps; the process introduces the performers, who may be defined in terms of roles or individuals according to context.

This is part of a procedure for making an omelette,

Step 1: Open fridge

Step 2: Collect 1 dozen eggs

Step 3: Collect mixing bowl >=1L capacity

Step 4: Break eggs into bowl

Step 5: Beat eggs…

This is part of the omelette making process that implements the omelette-making procedure in the context of a small non-domestic kitchen with two staff roles, the Cook and the Kitchen Assistant.

Step 1: Kitchen Assistant opens fridge

Step 2: Kitchen Assistant collects 1 dozen eggs

Step 3: Kitchen Assistant collects mixing bowl >=1L capacity

Step 4: Kitchen Assistant gives bowl & eggs to Cook

Step 5: Cook breaks eggs into bowl

Step 6: Cook beats eggs…

Notice that Step 4 in the process is a new step that deals with a change in performer, which can only occur when performers have been specified. A process is therefore necessarily more detailed insofar as it must deal with changes of performer. The orchestration of a process therefore includes management of roles and individuals.

ISO Alignment

Note that according to ISO, process is whatever actually happens and procedure is the documented description of a process. One can ask (in ISO terms) what the process for something is without there necessarily being a procedure for it, but if the question is answered (i.e. other than by pointing at the process in progress) a procedure will have been created (though it may not be formal.)

Summary

  • A process is an orchestrated set of behaviours
  • Every process (or procedural) step has an initial state and a final state
  • Every process step therefore realises a capability – however small or limited in scope
  • Every process step is an action of a specified entity, i.e. its completion is the result of a behaviour

Related Entries

Notes   [ + ]

1.Best Management Practice portfolio glossary, Version 1, October 2012 (may require acceptance of terms) pdf here
2.Unfortunately, the BMP common glossary referenced does not cite specific sources.
3.ISO 9000:2000, Quality management Systems – Fundamentals and Vocabulary. I cannot find an accessible version of this standard online, but, believing that access to standards is “of particular interest to the public” (I would have said, “in the public interest”), the government of India has made its Indian Standard identical to ISO 9000:2005 and placed it online pdf here. The definition of process is identical.

Project

Definition of Project

Definition Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

A project is the specification for, or realisation of, a specification for the delivery of a specific business change, i.e. a description of or performance of a capability.

Scope

Project is a defined term of Enterprise Architecture. Project is a defined term of Business Analysis. Project is a defined term of Management.

Discussion

Article Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

Since in all generality capabilities deliver change, a project describes a very particular, and time limited, capability that is usually focussed on affecting other capabilities – in terms of both what they do and how well they do it – by changing the way that they are realised (delivered) – either by changing their processes or the availability of resources, i.e. materiel and performers.

A project changes one specific state into another, and when it has (or perhaps has not) achieved its goals, it terminates, the capability ceases to be and the unconsumed resources of the project are returned to the organisational pool for re-use elsewhere. One hopes that only money and material are consumed and that staff are recycled; time is, alas, unrecoverable.

The point above about recycling staff is not entirely facetious: in exercising any capability, work must be done1In the truest thermodynamic sense of work. and things are typically either consumed or subject to wear; staff may be subject to “wear” as well and, indeed, may need to be rested between onerous duties.

Notes   [ + ]

1.In the truest thermodynamic sense of work.

Property

Definition of Property

Definition Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

A property is a named attribute, as opposed to an attribute identified by description. Being a property is therefore a contingent fact about an attribute, i.e. it is created by allocating a name to a quality that is attributed or attributable to particular entities.

In speaking of a specific property (meaning a specific characteristic) of a particular thing there is no ambiguity between property and attribute because the quality has necessarily been attributed to that thing; under such circumstances, property and attribute may be used interchangeably.

See also attribute.

Scope

Property is a defined term of Enterprise Architecture. Property is a defined term of Business Analysis.

Discussion

Article Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

The need for (or value of) the term property is not entirely clear; there is some confusion yet to be resolved here. An attribute could, in principle be unnamed if, for example, it was identified by the method for determining the value of a characteristic, but a case could be made that the method is just a long name and that more common names, such as “mass” refer to standard methods for value determination.

Relationships to Other Fundamental Concepts

The relationships between properties and other the fundamental concepts (characteristics, states, observables, attributes and tags) are shown in the figure below.

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

Figure – States, Characteristics, Properties, Attributes, Observables and Tags

Rationale

Definition of Rationale

Definition Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

A rationale is an argument for or against something, which may be engaging in an activity or being in a particular state; a rationale is therefore a kind of rule.

Rationales necessarily include valuations because to argue for or against something is to say that it is absolutely good or bad, or relatively better or worse than something else.

Rationales should be sound arguments, i.e. arguments that apply valid reasoning to true premises.

Scope

Rationale is a defined term of Enterprise Architecture. Rationale is a defined term of Business Analysis

Discussion

Article Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

Note the emphasis on the above use of sound as a qualifier of argument: whereas a valid argument is an argument that reasons correctly from the premises to the conclusion, a sound argument is a valid argument whose premises are also accepted as true, thus the soundness of an argument depends on what the intended audience of the argument accepts as true premises (as well as valid reasoning).

Rationales are ubiquitous – everything is done for a reason, even if it is also true that some things happen for no reason other than the ineluctability of causality – but they are particularly prominent and important in requirements analysis, risk management, stakeholder analysis, policy development, etc. where traceability to axioms or assumptions is the only guarantee of internal consistency.

In providing a rationale for a requirement the nature of the stakeholders with an interest in that requirement must be taken into account in expressing the rationale; both the stakeholders’ motivations and the premises they accept or reject must be accounted for. Note that if the requirement is, ultimately, contrary to certain stakeholders’ expectations, the soundness of the rationale will be crucial to obtaining stakeholder approval for that requirement.

Rationale is often explained simply with respect to reasons; the use of the word motivation in the definition given here highlights the ultimate dependency on the value of something to somebody.

Sometimes it may be necessary to explicitly state the value by reference to something else of known value, and sometimes it may be sufficient to imply a relevant value.

For example, assume a requirement that a user’s email address must be obtained – the rationale might be that failure to provide an email address would preclude the completion of some business transaction such as a sale (explicit reference to business value), or that failure to provide an email address will cause a software error (implicit reference).

Rationales are essential components of requirements – and a single requirement may have several rationales; rationales may also be used to clarify the relationships between requirements.

Relationship

Definition of Relationship

Definition Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

A relationship is a correspondence between sets of attributes of entities, either two or more sets belonging to a single entity or sets belonging to multiple entities, such that, according to the application of a rule the value of one set of attributes determines the values of others.

A relationship is not a direct correspondence between entities, even though diagrammatic representations of relationships might suggest this, nor is it a contingent relation between attribute values, i.e. a relation, such as “>” in “A > B”

Relationships typically express linguistic and logical truths such as, “If A is the father of B, then B is a child of A.”

Scope

Relationship is a defined term of Enterprise Architecture. Relationships is a defined term of Business Analysis.

Discussion

Article Last Updated 17-Dec-2015 12:51

Examples

Between a Pair of Entities

“I have a dog called Fido.” expresses the relationship I have the attribute owns-a-dog-named with the value Fido, and the dog called Fido has an attribute has-an-owner-named whose value is Julian related via the rule that in the inverse of owns is owned-by.

Between a Attributes Belonging to Single Entity

“If entity width > entity height then entity is broad.” Increasing the height until it is greater than the width, or decreasing the width until it is less than the height would negate the attribute is broad.

Among a Group of Entities

“Sarah threw the fish to the orca,” may be transformed into “The orca was thrown the fish by Sarah,” and “The fish was thrown to the orca by Sarah, and “The fish was thrown by Sarah to the orca.”1Not forgetting other constructions such as, “To the orca was the fish thrown by Sarah” or “To the orca, the fish, by Sarah, thrown was,” “The fish, to the orca, by Sarah, thrown was,” etc. that all embody the same relationship between instances of entities thrower, thrown and catcher. Complicated it can be.

More Formally

In terms of the notion of predicate, which, according to the precepts of modern theories of grammar and syntax2See Predicates in Modern theories of syntax and grammar, acts as a function that serves either to assign a value or to relate two or more arguments together, a relationship is a permutable function f({a, b, …}) of two or more ordered arguments, i.e. that there exists some related function f′ (typically an inversion, in the case of bivalued predicates) such that for f(a,b,c…) there is a natural meaning to f′(perm({a,b,c})) where perm() is a particular permutation of the arguments.

Example

Thus, if f() = is-father-of, such that the ordering of f(Adam, Seth) means Adam is the father of Seth, then the inversion f′ = is-son-of is valid if the arguments are swapped, i.e. f(Adam, Seth) ⇔ f′(Seth, Adam).

Using this approach it is also possible to construct more complex, meaningful relationships between entities, such as the following.

Let g() = recommended-book-to, with the ordering of g(Mary, Oliver Twist, Julian) meaning Mary recommended the book Oliver Twist to Julian, so that we may obtain g′ = book-was-recommended-by-to i.e. g′(Oliver Twist, Mary, Julian), and even g″ = was-recommended-book-by, i.e. g(Julian, Oliver Twist, Mary).

Contrast the descriptions of Julian and Fido as “owns a dog named Fido” and “is owned by Julian” respectively with the situation in which I am described as having the logical (Boolean) attribute is-dog-owner with value True and Fido as having the attribute is-owned-dog with value True.

These descriptions do not express a relationship because the attributes do not specify a target entity, thus should I cease to be a dog owner, there is no way to tell which dog has ceased to be3i.e. ceased to be in the sense that Fido is now an ex-dog, or ceased to be a dog in the case that Fido has been magically transformed into a cat., has been sold on, dognapped or wandered off a long time ago.

Diagram

The diagram below illustrates the nature of relationships.

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

Figure 1 – Relationships in Terms of Predicate Functions

Implementation

The record structure of a relationship in an information model should contain more information than just the predicate function, its arguments and the transformation rules if it is to support effective Architecture Modelling.

Like entities, relationships may come and go, and they may be real or imagined.

For maximum flexibility in expressing the mutable nature of relationships therefore, they should have the following additional attributes

  • Temporal validity: from an initial date and time to a final date and time
  • An indication the real or hypothetical nature of the relationship (e.g. “Actual”, “Hypothetical”)

Notes   [ + ]

1.Not forgetting other constructions such as, “To the orca was the fish thrown by Sarah” or “To the orca, the fish, by Sarah, thrown was,” “The fish, to the orca, by Sarah, thrown was,” etc. that all embody the same relationship between instances of entities thrower, thrown and catcher. Complicated it can be.
2.See Predicates in Modern theories of syntax and grammar
3.i.e. ceased to be in the sense that Fido is now an ex-dog, or ceased to be a dog in the case that Fido has been magically transformed into a cat.

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